My virtual Japanese notebook subject to my whimsy.

N4 Grammar List

Particles
1) まで
Meaning(s): Until A, up to A, as far as A
2) までに
Meaning(s): By A, by the time A
3) でも
Meaning(s): Any A (anywhere, anybody, anytime, etc.)
4) と(思う、言う、考える)
Meaning(s): That A
5) など
Meaning(s): Things like A; for example A
6) に
Meaning(s): Used with passive verbs to identify who/what is doing the action

Sentence Endings
1) つもりだ
Meaning(s): Plan to A, be going to A, intend to do A
2) だろう
Meaning(s): Probably A
3) だろうと思う
Meaning(s): I think probably A
4) かもしれない
Meaning(s): Might A, maybe A, perhaps A
5) はずだ
Meaning(s): It should be A, it ought to be A
6) はずがない
Meaning(s): Cannot be A, should not be A (when describing a situation, not the actions of the subject)
7) らしい
Meaning(s): I heard that A, it seems like A, it appears that A
8) さ
Meaning(s): Changes A into a noun
9) の
Meaning(s): Follows A, turning the sentence into a question (casual).
10) んだい
Meaning(s): Turns sentence A into a question (casual).
11) かい
Meaning(s): Follows A, turning the sentence into a question (casual).

Give, Take, Receive
1) くれる
Meaning(s): Give B to A (A is you, your friends, your family, etc.)
2) あげる
Meaning(s): Give B to A (A is a third party, not yourself)
3) 下さる
Meaning(s): Give B to A (A is you, your friends, your family, etc.)
4) さしあげる
Meaning(s): Give B to A (A is a third party, not yourself)
5) やる
Meaning(s): Give B to A (A is an animal, plant, or someone below you in ranking)
6) もらう
Meaning(s): A receives C from B; the giver is of the same/lower rank of the recipient.
7) いただく
Meaning(s): A receives C from B; the giver is of a higher rank than the recipient.
8) てくれる
Meaning(s): A does C for B; (B is you, your friends, your family, etc.)
9) て下さる
Meaning(s): A does C for B; (B is you, your friends, your family, etc.)
10) てさしあげる
Meaning(s): Do B for someone (above you)
11) てあげる
Meaning(s): Do B for someone
12) てやる
Meaning(s): Do B for someone (below you)
13) てもらう
Meaning(s): B does C for A
14) ていただく

Meaning(s): B does C for A

Conditional
1) ても、~でも
Meaning(s): Even if A
2) なら
Meaning(s): If A is the case/situation
3) たら
Meaning(s): If A
4) と
Meaning(s): When/if A,then B
5) Conditional Form

Meaning(s): If A

Cause and Effect
1) ので
Meaning(s): Because A, since A
2) し(~し)
Meaning(s): A and ... (used to list reasons, with each reason followed by し)
3) ため(に)
Meaning(s): Because of A, due to A

Causative, Passive, Volitional
1) Passive
Meaning(s): Be A-ed; when the action is directed at the subject.
2) Causative
Meaning(s): Make (somebody) A; this is coercive or forced onto the object of the sentence.
3) Causative Passive
Meaning(s): Be made to do A
4) 事ができる
Meaning(s): Be able to A; can do A
5) 見える
Meaning(s): Can be seen; is visible
6) 聞こえる
Meaning(s): Can be heard; is audible
7) ことになる
Meaning(s): To decide that A
8) Volitional
Meaning(s): Let's A
Meaning(s): Be about to A, (about to) try to A
10) ようにする
Meaning(s): Try to A, make sure to A
11) ことにする
Meaning(s): Decide to A
12) ようと思う
Meaning(s): I think I will A

Honorifics
1) ござる/ございます
Meaning(s): ござる is the polite form of ある.
2) でござる/でございます
Meaning(s): でござる is the polite form of である.
3) Humble verbs
Meaning(s): Humble form of A
4) Respectful verbs
Meaning(s): Respectful form of A
5) てくれてありがとう
Meaning(s): Thank you for doing A

Time and Change
1) ようになる/なくなる
Meaning(s): Come to A (transition over time)
2) 中/中
Meaning(s): During A (period of time), in the middle of A

Verb Suffixes
1) かた
Meaning(s): How to A
2) やすい
Meaning(s): A is easy to do
3) にくい
Meaning(s): A is hard/difficult to do
4) ずに
Meaning(s): Without A..ing
5) てほしい
Meaning(s): I want (person, thing) A to B (action)

Secondary Verbs
1) はじめる
Meaning(s): To begin to A; A begins
2) だす
Meaning(s): A (suddenly) begins
3) つづける
Meaning(s): A continues; To continue to A
4) おわる
Meaning(s): To finish A; A ends
5) てみる
Meaning(s): Try to A
6) てしまう
Meaning(s): To finish/complete A
7) ておく
Meaning(s): To do A in advance, do A as preparation for something else
8) すぎる
Meaning(s): A is done too much
9) がっている
Meaning(s): Wants to A
10) にいく
Meaning(s): Go (somewhere) in order to A
11) にくる
Meaning(s): Come (here) in order to A
12) てくる
Meaning(s): To come to A
13) ていく
Meaning(s): To get to A
14) にかえる
Meaning(s): Return to A
15) 合う
Meaning(s): To do A together/mutually
16) ていただけないでしょうか?
Meaning(s): Could you please A for me?

Can, Should, Must
1) てもいい
Meaning(s): It is alright to A; the subject may A; it's alright if A (condition)
2) てもかまわない
Meaning(s): It doesn't matter if A is done
3) なければならない
Meaning(s): Must do A; have to A
4) なくてはいけない
Meaning(s): Must do A; have to A
5) なくてもいい
Meaning(s): Don't have to A
6) ない方がよい
Meaning(s): It would be better to not A
7) た方がいい
Meaning(s): It would be better to A
8) Potential
Meaning(s): Can A; be able to A (ability of the subject)
9) Imperative
Meaning(s): Do A (command)
10) なさい
Meaning(s): Do A (instruction)
11) Prohibitive
Meaning(s): Don't A
12) てはいけない
Meaning(s): May not A, must not A

Comparison
1) より
Meaning(s): A is C-er than B; A is more C than B (comparison).
2) より~の方が~
Meaning(s): B is more C than A
3) とと、どちらが~
Meaning(s): Which is more C, A or B
4) ほど~ない
Meaning(s): A is not as C as B

Miscellaneous
1) か
Meaning(s): A is a question within the sentence
2) かどうか
Meaning(s): Whether or not A
3) ばかり 20 158
Meaning(s): Do only A, do nothing but A
4) ようだ
Meaning(s): It seems/looks like A
5) のに
Meaning(s): Even though A, in spite of A
6) とか~とか
Meaning(s): A, B, etc.
7) ように言う
Meaning(s): Tell someone to do A
8) がする
Meaning(s): Hear A, smell A, taste A
9) の、~こと
Meaning(s): Changes A into a noun
10) ちゃ、~じゃ
Meaning(s): ちゃ is a casual form of ては
11) ということ
Meaning(s): Presents information A; A is heard (and repeated in this sentence)
12) てしまう
Meaning(s): To put away A
13) どうしても
Meaning(s): No matter what, A; by any means necessary A
14) ほど
Meaning(s): About A, around A (approximation)

Situations and Experiences
1) たことがある
Meaning(s): Have done A before
2) まま
Meaning(s): The situation A remains unchanged
3) ことがある
Meaning(s): There are times when A (occurs/exists)
4) んです
Meaning(s): The reason/explanation is A
5) んですが
Meaning(s): Introduces a request, invitation, or asking for permission
6) そうだ
Meaning(s): A is spoken by/heard from someone/something else
7) ところ
Meaning(s): About to start A
8) ようだ
Meaning(s): Looks as if A
9) の上では
Meaning(s): From the standpoint of A; according to A; as far as A is concerned;

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