My virtual Japanese notebook subject to my whimsy.

N3 Grammar List

(Not) Only/(Not) Even:
1) さえ/にさえ/でさえ
Meaning(s): Even A
2) たとえ~ても
Meaning(s): Even if A is the case
3) ばかりか
Meaning(s): Not only A, but B as well
4) だけしか
Meaning(s): Only A can B
5) その上
Meaning(s): Not only A, but B (as well)
6) 少しも~ない
Meaning(s): Not (even a little) A
7) まったく~ない
Meaning(s): Not A (at all; even a little bit)
8) もし~としても

Meaning(s): Even if A... (chances of A are pretty low)

Adjectival/Descriptions:
1) まま
Meaning(s): The situation A remains unchanged
2) ようだ
Meaning(s): Looks as if A
3) まで
Meaning(s): Until A, up to A, as far as A
4) っぽい
Meaning(s): Seems A; A-ish
5) どんなに
Meaning(s): No matter how (much) A, B
6) ふりをする
Meaning(s): To pretend to (be) A; To act as if A
7) など

Meaning(s): Used to emphasize negative B

Causative/Passive/Volitional:
1) Passive
Meaning(s): Be A-ed; when the action is directed at the subject.
2) ことになる
Meaning(s): To decide that A
Meaning(s): Be about to A, (about to) try to A
4) ようにする
Meaning(s): Try to A, make sure to A
5) ことにする
Meaning(s): Decide to A
6) ようと思う
Meaning(s): I think I will A

Comparison/Exchange:
1) に比べて/に比べ
Meaning(s): When compared to A
2) 代わり
Meaning(s): Not A, but B, B in place of A
3) というより
Meaning(s): Rather than A
4) ほど~ない
Meaning(s): A is not as C as B

Conditional/While:
1) としたら
Meaning(s): If A were the case; Supposing A
2) うち/ないうち
Meaning(s): While A is the case, B; While A is occuring, B
3) もしも~なら
Meaning(s): If A..
4) もし~たなら
Meaning(s): If A (past) (A was not true/possible)

Considering/Concerning:
1) にとって
Meaning(s): As for A
2) 関して
Meaning(s): About A; With relation to A
3) によって/により/による
Meaning(s): By the means/method A, by A
4) として
Meaning(s): As A; From the standpoint of A
5) といえば/というと/といったら
Meaning(s): When A is thought about, B soon comes to mind
6) わりに
Meaning(s): Considering A, B (unexpected)
7) にしても
Meaning(s): Even for A, In the case of A as well
8) にしては
Meaning(s): For A, even though A, considering A

Contrast/Surprise:
1) わけではない
Meaning(s): Although you may think A, that is not the case.
2) くせに
Meaning(s): Even though A, unfortunate result B
3) だけど
Meaning(s): A, however/but B
4) ところが
Meaning(s): Although A (was planned/expected), B (unexpected)
5) ことは~が
Meaning(s): Although A is true, C

Degree/Level/Amount:
1) ことか
Meaning(s): How A, so A, how much A!
2) しか~ない
Meaning(s): There's only A; Only A can be done; Only A (of many methods)
3) くらいだ/ぐらいだ
Meaning(s): So A, to the extent A
4) ば~ほど
Meaning(s): The more A, C
5) きり
Meaning(s): Only A (small number of something)
6) めったにない
Meaning(s): There are hardly any A; A is very rare

Information/Report:
1) とはかぎらない
Meaning(s): A is not 100%; there are exceptions
2) ついでに
Meaning(s): Since A happened/is going to happen, B
3) ほど
Meaning(s): So much B that it's like A
4) というのは
Meaning(s): Used to give explanation/definition B for A
5) んだって
Meaning(s): Used to report information A (often heard)

Lists/Examples:
1) はもちろん/はもとより
Meaning(s): Although A is given/obvious; B (also)
2) と言っても
Meaning(s): Although A is the case, B (as well)
3) それとも
Meaning(s): A? or B?
4) それと
Meaning(s): A, and B

Miscellaneous:
1) ばかり
Meaning(s): Do only A, do nothing but A
2) ように言う
Meaning(s): Tell someone to do A
3) ということ
Meaning(s): Presents information A; A is heard (and repeated in this sentence)
4) 通り/通り
Meaning(s): In the way A; The same as A, B; As described by A, B
5) ますように
Meaning(s): (I) hope that A (will come true/happen)
6) くれと
Meaning(s): Asked to (do/don't do) A
7) つまり
Meaning(s): A, in other words, B
8) といい
Meaning(s): It would be nice if A; I wish A; I hope A
9) ところで
Meaning(s): By the way, A

Needs/Requirements:
1) ことはない
Meaning(s): A is not necessary; it's OK if A is not done.
2) ことだ
Meaning(s): A is necessary/good (offering advice/suggestion)
3) わけにはいかない
Meaning(s): Must not A
4) べきだ/べきではない
Meaning(s): Should do A; Must do A
5) ないと,なくちゃ
Meaning(s): Must do A
6) ように
Meaning(s): As was written/said/etc. in A

Potential/Possibility:
1) ないことはない
Meaning(s): There is a (small) possibility of A. A is not impossible.
2) わけがない
Meaning(s): There's no reason for A (A should not be possible)
3) きれない
Meaning(s): Can't finish/complete A

Reason/Result/Response:
1) に対して/に対しては
Meaning(s): In response to (topic) A, in regards to A, considering A, in contrast to A
2) せいで/せいか
Meaning(s): Because of A, B
3) おかげで
Meaning(s): Because of A, (positive result) B; Thanks to A, B
4) こそ
Meaning(s): A (often a reason/cause) is very strongly emphasized.
5) わけだ
Meaning(s): As you'd expect, A; Of course, A
6) そのため
Meaning(s): Because of A, B
7) その結果
Meaning(s): Because of A (in the past), B
8) なぜなら
Meaning(s): A was done/decided because of B
9) ですから
Meaning(s): Because of A, B

Sentence Endings:
1) かもしれない
Meaning(s): Might A, maybe A, perhaps A
2) はずだ
Meaning(s): It should be A, it ought to be A
3) はずがない
Meaning(s): Cannot be A, should not be A (when describing a situation, not the actions of the subject)
4) らしい
Meaning(s): I heard that A, it seems like A, it appears that A
5) さ
Meaning(s): Changes A into a noun
6) の
Meaning(s): Follows A, turning the sentence into a question (casual).
7) っけ
Meaning(s): Marks a question (very informal)
8) たもの
Meaning(s): Shows past habit or action A that was done often

Time/Situation:
1) ようになる/なくなる
Meaning(s): Come to A (transition over time)
2) において
Meaning(s): At the time/place/state A
3) から~にかけて
Meaning(s): From A through B
4) たびに
Meaning(s): Every time that A (occurs)
5) かけの/かけだ
Meaning(s): B in the middle of A; half-A B
6) たとたん
Meaning(s): As soon as A (occured), B
7) 最中
Meaning(s): In the middle of A
8) ところ
Meaning(s): After A is done, the results of A are B
9) 上げる
Meaning(s): Just finished/completed A
10) たて
Meaning(s): Just after A (has been done)
11) てははじめて
Meaning(s): Only after A did (I) B

Verb Suffixes: 
1) ずに
Meaning(s): Without A..ing
2) てほしい
Meaning(s): I want (person, thing) A to B (action)
3) とく
Meaning(s): To do A in advance
4) てごらん
Meaning(s): Please (try and) A

Will/Decision/Doing:
1) つもりだ
Meaning(s): Plan to A, be going to A, intend to do A
2) ところだった
Meaning(s): Was just about to (do) A; Was just thinking of doing A
3) ようとしない
Meaning(s): A isn't being done, not trying to A
4) がっている
Meaning(s): Don't be A (afraid, shy, etc.)
5) 決して~ない
Meaning(s): Definitely won't A; definitely isn't A

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