My virtual Japanese notebook subject to my whimsy.

N2 Grammar List

No Category:
1) となると
Meaning(s): When it comes to A, if it turns out that A

1) からして
Meaning(s): From the (single) example A, you can tell B
2) をはじめ/をはじめとする
Meaning(s): For example, A
3) はもちろん/はもとより
Meaning(s): Although A is given/obvious; B (also)
4) と言っても
Meaning(s): Although A is the case, B (as well)
5) にくわえて/にくわえ
Meaning(s): In addition to A (not only A), B as well.
6) やら~やら
Meaning(s): A, B, ... (examples from a list)
7) も~ば~も/も~なら~も
Meaning(s): A is B and C is D; neither A is B nor C is D
8) あるいは
Meaning(s): A or B

1) かのようだ
Meaning(s): It's as if A
2) がたい
Meaning(s): Hard to do A (almost impossible to A)
3) げ
Meaning(s): Looks A
4) っぽい
Meaning(s): Seems A; A-ish
5) 気味だ
Meaning(s): Like A, Looking like A (is happening)
6) 向け
Meaning(s): Made for A, intended for A
7) っぱなし
Meaning(s): To keep A; To remain/stay A
8) だけのことはある
Meaning(s): It's not surprising that A, A is no surprise, A is no wonder
9) てかなわない
Meaning(s): A is a problem; condition A is troubling/a nuisance
10) かいがあって
Meaning(s): There is/was value in doing A; Doing A has it's rewards
11) がい
Meaning(s): There's value in doing A; It's worth doing A
12) ままに
Meaning(s): Do B as/like A
13) てとうぜんだ
Meaning(s): A is common, natural, not surprising
14) のももっともだ
Meaning(s): A is natural, common, right/expected
15) も同然だ
Meaning(s): The same as saying A, as good as A
16) ということは
Meaning(s): A. In other words, B.; A. Oh, so B
17) 要するに
Meaning(s): A. In short/put simply, B
18) なかなか
Meaning(s): It is hard to do A, A is not easily done/accomplished

Based/Focused/Depending on:
1) 次だいだ
Meaning(s): It depends on A
2) によって/により/による
Meaning(s): By the means/method A, by A
3) にそって/にそい/にそう/にそった
Meaning(s): Along with A; In line with A
4) に応じて(は)/に応じ(た)
Meaning(s): In response/reply to A
5) にもとづいて/にもとづき/にもとづく
Meaning(s): Based on A
6) にしろ/にせよ/にもせよ
Meaning(s): Regardless of if it's A or B
7) かかわらず/かかわりなく
Meaning(s): Even though A
8) をもとに/をもとにして
Meaning(s): A as a basis for B
9) はともかく
Meaning(s): Whether or not A, B (is true)
10) のもと/をもと
Meaning(s): Based in/on A
11) 次だいでは
Meaning(s): Depending on A, B may change
12) を頼りに
Meaning(s): With the help of A; thanks to A

1) に比べて/に比べ
Meaning(s): When compared to A
2) 代わり
Meaning(s): Not A, but B, B in place of A
3) というより
Meaning(s): Rather than A
4) まだしも
Meaning(s): A is acceptable, A would be better/worse

1) からすると
Meaning(s): Considering A...; Thinking about A...
2) から見れば
Meaning(s): If you think from the standpoint of A
3) からいって
Meaning(s): If you think about/consider A
4) 上
Meaning(s): From the standpoint of A
5) にとって
Meaning(s): As for A
6) 関して
Meaning(s): About A; With relation to A
7) にしては/にしても
Meaning(s): For/considering A, B
8) をめぐって
Meaning(s): Concerning A; About A
9) を問わず
Meaning(s): Disregarding A; Without relation to A
10) もかまわず
Meaning(s): Without considering A
11) として
Meaning(s): As A; From the standpoint of A
12) といえば/というと/といったら
Meaning(s): When A is thought about, B soon comes to mind
13) わりに
Meaning(s): Considering A, B (unexpected)
14) にかかわる
Meaning(s): Relating to A, concerning A
15) にかけては
Meaning(s): When it comes to A
16) にしたら
Meaning(s): From A's perspective, if I was A, from the standpoint of A
17) にしても
Meaning(s): Even for A, In the case of A as well
18) にしては
Meaning(s): For A, even though A, considering A
19) によって/により/による
Meaning(s): For some A, certain A
20) そこで
Meaning(s): Considering the situation A, B
21) そういえば
Meaning(s): Speaking of .., A by the way, A

1) ものの
Meaning(s): Although A...
2) わけではない
Meaning(s): Although you may think A, that is not the case.
3) かといえば
Meaning(s): Although A is expected, B results.
4) に反して/に反し/に反する/に反した
Meaning(s): In contrast to A
5) くせに
Meaning(s): Even though A, unfortunate result B
6) 反面
Meaning(s): A, on the other hand B
7) 一方
Meaning(s): On one hand A, on the other, B; Although A, at the same time, B
8) ながら(も)
Meaning(s): Although A, B
9) にもかかわらず
Meaning(s): Although A, despite A, even though A, in spite of A
10) かいもなく
Meaning(s): Even though A, nothing (good) came of it/bad results happened;
11) くせして
Meaning(s): Even though A (used to place blame/criticism)
12) だけましだ
Meaning(s): Although A, B is (still) true (and is good)
13) それなのに
Meaning(s): Even though A, (unexpected result) B
14) それでも
Meaning(s): Even though A, B
15) それが
Meaning(s): Although (you'd expect) A, (actually) B
16) ただし
Meaning(s): A. However, B (restricts A, or gives an exception to A)
17) もっとも
Meaning(s): A. However, B (restricts A or gives an exception to B)
18) どころではない
Meaning(s): Far from A (not A)

1) ことか
Meaning(s): How A, so A, how much A!
2) しか~ない
Meaning(s): There's only A; Only A can be done; Only A (of many methods)
3) てしょうがない/てしかたがない
Meaning(s): Very A; Really A; Extremely A
4) てたまらない
Meaning(s): Very A; Extremely A; Really want to do A
5) てならない
Meaning(s): Very A; Extremely A
6) くらいだ/ぐらいだ
Meaning(s): So A, to the extent A
7) だらけだ
Meaning(s): Lots/tons of A (negative situation)
8) ほどだ
Meaning(s): (shows the extend/degree A of something)
9) あまり
Meaning(s): Too A, Too much A, Overwhelming A
10) ば~ほど
Meaning(s): The more A, C
11) てまで
Meaning(s): To the point of A

1) ないことには
Meaning(s): If you don't A, the condition B will remain the same.
2) さえ~ば
Meaning(s): If only A/B, then C
3) としたら
Meaning(s): If A were the case; Supposing A
4) うち/ないうち
Meaning(s): While A is the case, B; While A is occurring, B
5) かぎり/ないかぎり
Meaning(s): While A is the case/still true

1) ことだから
Meaning(s): Shows a typical trait or characteristic of A
2) ことになっている
Meaning(s): Displays rule, decision, or plan A
3) ものだ
Meaning(s): Shows common/obvious knowledge A; Of course, A, it's known that A
4) というものだ
Meaning(s): Shows an especially strong conviction A of the speaker
5) というものではない
Meaning(s): It is no guarantee that A
6) ものがある
Meaning(s): Shows a situation/condition A that draws strong feelings/emotions
7) ものか
Meaning(s): Not A! As if A! (A is not true)
8) ところを/ところに/ところへ
Meaning(s): At time/situation A
9) てからでないと
Meaning(s): Until A is done, B doesn't occur/can't be done.
10) 上で
Meaning(s): First A (is done, often in preparation), then B
11) にかぎる
Meaning(s): A is the best (action)
12) とはかぎらない
Meaning(s): A is not 100%; there are exceptions
13) に違いない
Meaning(s): Without a doubt, A
14) に決まっている
Meaning(s): A is a given; A must be the case.
15) につれて
Meaning(s): As A changes, B changes (together)
16) にしたがって
Meaning(s): As A changes, B changes (in response to A)
17) にともなって/にともなう
Meaning(s): When A changes, B changes with it.
18) をきっかけに
Meaning(s): With A as a good opportunity/chance to B; Using A as a time to (start) B
19) とともに
Meaning(s): At the same time A, B (occurs together)
20) ついでに
Meaning(s): Since A happened/is going to happen, B
21) に相違ない
Meaning(s): Without a doubt, A
22) をけい機
Meaning(s): As a good opportunity A, (do) B
23) 次だい
Meaning(s): After A occurs, B will (soon) occur
24) て以来
Meaning(s): After A, B (continuous action/condition)
25) つつ/つつも
Meaning(s): While A, B. Although A (is beng done), B
26) ほど
Meaning(s): So much B that it's like A
27) とか
Meaning(s): I heard A, it seems that A
28) ちなみに
Meaning(s): A. And/In addition/by the way, B (a little more information)

1) ことはない
Meaning(s): A is not necessary; it's OK if A is not done.
2) ことだ
Meaning(s): A is necessary/good (offering advice/suggestion)
3) わけにはいかない
Meaning(s): Must not A
4) ように
Meaning(s): In the hopes that A, in order for A
5) からといって
Meaning(s): With only A, it is not enough, so B
6) べきだ/べきではない
Meaning(s): Should do A; Must do A
7) 必要はない
Meaning(s): It is not necessary for A to be done.
8) ねばならない
Meaning(s): Must A
9) てはならない
Meaning(s): Cannot A, must not A
10) ていられない
Meaning(s): Cannot continue to A
11) てばかりはいられない
Meaning(s): Cannot always A

(Not) Only/(Not) Even:
1) 上に
Meaning(s): Not only A, but B as well
2) にかぎって/にかぎり
Meaning(s): Only A (A is a special condition)
3) にかぎらず
Meaning(s): Not only A, but B also
4) ほかない
Meaning(s): There are no other methods except for A
5) ざるをえない
Meaning(s): Only A is left to do/can be done
6) にすぎない
Meaning(s): Only A; No more than A
7) さえ/にさえ/でさえ
Meaning(s): Even A
8) としても
Meaning(s): Even if A were the case
9) たとえ~ても
Meaning(s): Even if A is the case
10) ばかりか
Meaning(s): Not only A, but B as well
11) のみならず
Meaning(s): Not only A, but B as well
12) しかも
Meaning(s): Not only A, but B as well
13) おまけに
Meaning(s): A. In addition, B

1) ないことはない
Meaning(s): There is a (small) possibility of A. A is not impossible.
2) わけがない
Meaning(s): There's no reason for A (A should not be possible)
3) ようがない/ようもない
Meaning(s): There is no method/way to do A
4) っこない
Meaning(s): A is definitely not possible.
5) かねない
Meaning(s): There is a fear/chance of A (happening)
6) きれない
Meaning(s): Can't finish/complete A
7) かねる
Meaning(s): Can't do A
8) うる/えない
Meaning(s): A is possible; A can be done.
9) おそれがある
Meaning(s): There is a chance of A (A is a bad/negative result)
10) がちです/がちになる
Meaning(s): A tends to become/happen/occur.
11) きる
Meaning(s): To do A completely/exhaustively/to the end
12) そうにない
Meaning(s): There's little chance/possibility of A

1) ことに
Meaning(s): Precedes the reason/cause B for the (strong) feelings/emotions A
2) ことから
Meaning(s): Displays reason A for effect B
3) ものだから
Meaning(s): Because of A
4) からには
Meaning(s): Now that A, since A (has been done), so long as A
5) 上は
Meaning(s): Because of A, B can't be helped/is expected.
6) にほかならない
Meaning(s): Only A
7) に対して/に対しては
Meaning(s): In response to (topic) A, in regards to A, considering A, in contrast to A
8) にこたえて
Meaning(s): In response to A
9) につき
Meaning(s): Due to reason A
10) の末/た末
Meaning(s): As a conclusion of A, B
11) たあげく
Meaning(s): After A, B was the final/end result
12) 以上
Meaning(s): Because of A, B (is an expected/natural result), Now that A, B
13) せいで/せいか
Meaning(s): Because of A, B
14) おかげで
Meaning(s): Because of A, (positive result) B; Thanks to A, B
15) こそ
Meaning(s): A (often a reason/cause) is very strongly emphasized.
16) ばかりに
Meaning(s): Because A, B (negative result)
17) だけ
Meaning(s): Because of A, (natural results) B
18) わけだ
Meaning(s): As you'd expect, A; Of course, A
19) もの
Meaning(s): Because of A
20) てこそ
Meaning(s): Now since A...
21) それなら
Meaning(s): If A is the case, then (let's) B
22) それで
Meaning(s): Because of A, B
23) だが
Meaning(s): A. However, B
24) だって
Meaning(s): Because of B, A
25) したがって
Meaning(s): Because of A, B
26) たいばかりに
Meaning(s): B is done solely because of A

1) どころではない
Meaning(s): It's not the time/condition/situation for A
2) か~ないかのうちに
Meaning(s): Right after A, C
3) つつある
Meaning(s): In the middle of A; in the process of A
4) において
Meaning(s): At the time/place/state A
5) にあたって/にあたり
Meaning(s): At the time of A (which starts now)..; On the occasion of A
6) 際して/に(際し)/に際しての
Meaning(s): At the time of A (which starts now)..
7) に先立って/に先立ち/に先立つ
Meaning(s): Before A occurs/takes place
8) から~にかけて
Meaning(s): From A through B
9) にわたって/にわたり
Meaning(s): Over the course of A (continuous action), Throughout A
10) につけ
Meaning(s): During both times/situations A and B
11) たびに
Meaning(s): Every time that A (occurs)
12) かけの/かけだ
Meaning(s): B in the middle of A; half-A B
13) きりだ
Meaning(s): After A, B continues unchanged
14) たとたん
Meaning(s): As soon as A (occured), B
15) 最中
Meaning(s): In the middle of A
16) 際/際に/際は
Meaning(s): At the time of A
17) ところ
Meaning(s): After A is done, the results of A are B
18) 間/間に
Meaning(s): During A
19) の上では
Meaning(s): From the standpoint of A; according to A; as far as A is concerned;
20) かと思ったら/かと思うと
Meaning(s): As soon as I noticed A, B, almost immediately after A, B
21) おりには
Meaning(s): When A, at the time A
22) にて
Meaning(s): At A, by A
23) すると
Meaning(s): A. Right after, B

1) ことなく
Meaning(s): Without doing A once (expressed strongly)
2) たいものだ
Meaning(s): Want to A
3) ずにはいられない/ないではいられない
Meaning(s): Can't help but A; A is unavoidable
4) ぬく
Meaning(s): Do A until the end/last.
5) かける
Meaning(s): Do A towards someone.
6) を込めて
Meaning(s): Put A into it
7) まい/まいか
Meaning(s): Not A, Probably not A
8) こと
Meaning(s): Do A (command)
9) たもの
Meaning(s): Shows past habit or action A that was done often
10) ところだった
Meaning(s): Was just about to (do) A; Was just thinking of doing A
11) ようとしている
Meaning(s): Shows change/movement A is about to start/end

1) ものなら
Meaning(s): A can't be done, but if it could, then B
2) どころか
Meaning(s): To say nothing of A, far from A, much less A, let alone A
3) うではないか/うじゃないか
Meaning(s): Let's go A; Why don't we A?
4) 一方だ
Meaning(s): Change A continues, A does not stop
5) を通じて/を通して
Meaning(s): Over the course of A, during the time A
6) 中心に
Meaning(s): With A as the center/focus
7) ぬきにして/~ぬきで
Meaning(s): Exclude A; Stop/end A; Without A
8) 通り/通り
Meaning(s): In the way A; The same as A, B; As described by A, B
9) を~として/を~とする
Meaning(s): As a B (label), A (subject)
10) 向きだ
Meaning(s): Suitable for A, fits/goes well with A
11) っけ
Meaning(s): Marks a question (very informal)
12) それはそうと
Meaning(s): Used when switching from topics A to B
13) なお
Meaning(s): Furthermore, A
14) さて
Meaning(s): Now, (let's move on to) A

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